Jupiter is changing: Reflections on Google’s transformation of its data center network

Modern warehouse-scale computing and cloud computing are based on data center networks. Computing and storage have been transformed by the underlying guarantee that uniform, arbitrary communication can be made among thousands of servers at 100s to 200 Gb/s bandwidth with sub-100us latency.

This model has a simple but profound benefit: adding an incremental storage device or server to a higher-level service results in a proportional increase of service capacity and capabilities. Google’s Jupiter data center network technology allows for this type of scale-out capability to support foundational services such as Search, YouTube and Gmail.

The last eight years have been spent integrating wave division multiplexing and optical circuit switching into Jupiter. Despite decades of wisdom stating otherwise, OCS and our Software Defined Networking architecture (SDN), have enabled us to create new capabilities. OCS allows for incremental network builds using heterogeneous technologies, higher performance, lower latency and power consumption, real-time communication patterns, and zero downtime upgrades.

Jupiter achieves all of this while using 10% less flow completion, improving throughput and incurring 30% less costs, as well as delivering 50% less downtime than other known alternatives. This paper, Jupiter Evolution: Transforming Google’s Datacenter Network through Optical Circuit Switches & Software-Defined Networking, explains how we achieved this feat.

This is a brief overview of the project.

Networks of data centers for Evolving Jupiter

demonstrated in 2015 how Jupiter’s data center networks scaled up to more than 35,000 servers, with 40Gb/s server connectivity. This allowed for more than 1Pb/sec aggregate bandwidth. Jupiter now supports over 6Pb/sec datacenter bandwidth. Three ideas were used to achieve unprecedented performance and scale.

  • Software-Defined Networking – A logically centralized control plane that allows you to program and manage thousands of switches in the data center network.
  • Clos Topology is a non-blocking multistage switching totology made up of smaller radix switches chips that can scale to arbitrarily big networks.
  • Merchant switch silicon is a cost-effective, general-purpose Ethernet switching component for a converged data and storage network.

Jupiter’s architectural approach based on these three pillars supported a major shift in distributed system architecture. It also set the standard for how industry builds and manages data centers networks.

Two main challenges remain for hyperscale data centres. Data center networks must be scaled up to the size of a building, with 40MW or more infrastructure. The servers and storage devices in the building are constantly changing. For example, they can move from 40Gb/s up to 100Gb/s up to 200Gb/s, and now 400Gb/s native interconnects. The data center network must adapt dynamically to keep up with new elements that connect to it.

Clos topologies, as illustrated below, require a spine layer that provides uniform support for all devices. Clos-based data centers require a large spine layer to run at the same speed as the current generation. This was necessary in order to deploy a building-scale network. Clos topologies require all to-allfanout starting at aggregation blocks and ending at the spine. Adding to the spine incrementally would require rewiring of the entire data center. The only way to support faster devices would be to replace the entire spine layer. However, this would not be feasible given the hundreds of racks housing switches and the tens of thousand of fiber pairs that run across the building.

The ideal data center network would support heterogeneous elements of network in a “pay-as-you grow” model. This means that the network can add network elements as needed, and the latest technology will be supported incrementally. It would be able to support the same scale-out model that it supports for storage and servers, and allow incremental increases in network capacity. This will result in native interoperability and increased capacity for all devices.

Second, uniform building-scale bandwidth can be a strength but it becomes limited when you consider that data centers networks are multi-tenant and constantly subject to maintenance and localized faults. One data center network can host hundreds of services, each with its own priority, sensitivity to bandwidth, and latency variation. Serving web search results in real time might require bandwidth allocation and real-time latency guarantees, while a batch job for analytics may need more flexibility to meet short-term bandwidth requirements. This means that the data center network should assign bandwidth and pathing services based upon real-time communication patterns, and application-aware optimization. If 10% of the network capacity must be temporarily removed for an upgrade, that 10% should not necessarily be distributed equally among all tenants. Instead, it should be apportioned according to individual priority and application requirements.

These remaining challenges were difficult to address at first. Data center networks were designed around hierarchical topologies at large physical scale, so that dynamic adaptation and incremental heterogeneity could not be supported. This was broken by introducing Optical Circuit Switching to the Jupiter architecture. An optical circuit switch (depicted below) maps an optical fiber input port to an output port dynamically through two sets of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirrors that can be rotated in two dimensions to create arbitrary port-to-port mappings.

The insight was that it was possible to create arbitrarily logical topologies in data center networks by inserting an OCS intermediation layer among data center packet switches, as shown below.

This required us to create OCS and native WDM transceivers at scale, manufacturability, and reliability that were unimaginable before. While academic research explored the advantages of optical switches, common wisdom indicated that OCS technology wasn’t commercially viable. We designed and built Apollo OCS over multiple years. This technology is now the foundation for most of our data center networks.

OCS has one major advantage: it does not involve packet routing and header parsing. OCS simply reflect light from one input port to another with great precision and very little loss. Electro-optical conversion is used to generate the light at WDM transceivers, which are already required for data transmission reliably and efficiently through data center buildings. OCS is part of the building infrastructure. It can be used at any data rate or wavelength and doesn’t require upgrades, even as the electrical infrastructure changes from 40Gb/s transmission and encoding speeds of 40Gb/s up to 100Gb/s and 200Gb/s, and beyond.

An OCS layer was used to eliminate the spine layer in our data center networks. Instead, heterogeneous aggregate blocks were connected in a direct mesh. This allowed us to move beyond Clos topologies within the data center. We developed dynamic logical topologies to reflect both application communication patterns and physical capacity. It is now a standard procedure to reconfigure the logical connectivity of switches in our network. This allows us to dynamically change the topology without any application-visible effect. This was achieved by linking down link drains and reconfiguring routing software. We also relied on our OrionSoftware Defined Networking control plan to effortlessly orchestrate thousands independent and dependent operations.

It was a particularly challenging challenge to find the shortest route routing over mesh topologies that could provide the robustness and performance required by our data centre. Clos topologies are known for having side effects such as the fact that there are many paths through the network. However, they all have the same length and link capacities. This means that oblivious packet distribution or Valiant load balancing provides sufficient performance. Our SDN control plane in Jupiter is used to implement dynamic traffic engineering. We use techniques that were pioneered by Google’s WAN: we split traffic between multiple paths, while monitoring link capacity, communication patterns, individual priority, and individual application priorities.

We have combined our efforts to re-architect the Jupiter data center networks, which power Google’s warehouse-scale computing machines, and introduced a few industry firsts.

  • Optical Circuit switches are the interoperability point to build large networks and seamlessly support heterogeneous technologies as well as upgrades and other service requirements.
  • Topologies based on direct mesh for better performance, lower latency and lower power consumption.
  • Traffic engineering and real-time topology to adapt network connectivity and pathing in order to match communication patterns and application priority. All while monitoring and reporting on maintenance and failures.
  • Hitless network upgrades are possible with localized addition/remove capacity. This eliminates the need to do costly and tedious “all services out” upgrades.

Although the technology itself is impressive, our goal is to provide performance, efficiency and reliability that combine to enable the most complex distributed services such as Google Cloud and Google Cloud. Our Jupiter network uses 40% less power, has a 30% lower cost and is 50x more reliable than any other alternative. This, while improving flow completion and throughput by 10%. We are proud to present details about this technological feat today at SIGCOMM and look forward discussing our findings in the community.

Use graphs to make smarter AI with Neo4j or Google Cloud Vertex AI

 

This blog post will show you how to combine two technologies: Google Cloud Vertex AI which is a ML development platform and Neo4j which is a graph database. These technologies can be combined to create and deploy graph-based machine-learning models.

You can find the code that underlies this blog post in a notebook .

Graphs are useful for data science.

Many business problems can be solved by graphs. Graphs are data structures which describe the relationships between data points just as well as the data.

One way to look at graphs is to consider the relationship between verbs and nouns. The nouns (or nodes) are things like people, places, and objects. The verbs or relationships are what connect them. People get to know each other, and things are sent to them. These relationships are powerful.

Graph data is often large and difficult to manage. It can be nearly impossible to use it in traditional machine-learning tasks.

Google Cloud and Neo4j provide scalable, intelligent tools to make the most of graph data. Neo4j Graph Data Science, Google Cloud Vertex AI and Neo4j Graph Data Science make it easy to build AI models from graph data.

Dataset – PaySim Fraud Identification

Machine learning using graphs has many applications. Combating fraud in all forms is one common application. Fake transactions are identified by credit card companies, and insurers face false claims. Lenders also watch out for stolen credentials.

Machine learning and statistics have been used for decades to combat fraud. One common method is to create a classification model based on the individual characteristics of each payment and its users. Data scientists may train an XGBoost model that predicts if a transaction is fraudulent. It uses the transaction amount, date, time, origin and target accounts, and the resulting balances.

These models are susceptible to fraud. Fraudsters can bypass checks that only look at one transaction by channeling transactions through a network. To be successful, a model must understand the relationships between fraudulent transactions, legitimate transaction and actors.

These types of problems are best solved with graph techniques. This example will show you how graphs can be used in this scenario. Next, we will show you how to build an end-to–end pipeline for training a complete model with Neo4J or Vertex AI. We’re using the PaySim dataset from Kaggle, which includes graph features.

Loading Data into Neo4j

We first need to load the data into Neo4j. We’re using AuraDS for this example. AuraDS provides Neo4j Graph Data Science and Ne4j Graph Data Science as managed services on top of GCP. You can sign up for a limited preview right now.

AuraDS is an excellent way to start GCP. The service can be fully managed. All we have to do to set up a Paysim database is to click through a few screens, and then load the dump file.

There are many ways that Neo4j can explore the data once it has been loaded. To run queries, you can use the Python API within a notebook.

With Neo4j, you can create embedded designs

Once you have explored your data set, a common next move is to use the Neo4j Graph Data Science algorithms to create features that encode complex, high-dimensional graph data into values that can be used by tabular machine learning algorithms.

To identify patterns, many users begin with simple graph algorithms. To find disjointed groups of account holders who share common logins, you can look at weakly connected parts. Louvain methods can be used to identify fraud rings that are laundering money. You can use page rank to determine which accounts are the most important. These techniques will require that you know the exact pattern you are looking for.

Neo4j can be used to generate graph embeddings. Graph embeddings reduce complex topological information within your graph into a fixed-length vector. This is where the graph’s related nodes have proximal vectors. If graph topology is important, such as how fraudsters behave and with whom they interact, embeddings will capture it.

Some techniques use the embeddings by themselves. You can use a T-sne plot or compute raw similarity scores to locate clusters visually. Combining your embeddings and Google Cloud Vertex AI is what makes the magic happen. This allows you to train a supervised model.

This creates a 16-dimensional graph embedding with the Fast Random Project method. This nodeSelfInfluence parameter is a neat feature. This allows us to tune how many nodes in the graph have an influence on the embedding.

Once the embedding calculation is complete, we can dump it into a pandas databaseframe, convert it to a CSV, and then push it to a Google Cloud storage bucket so that Vertex AI can use it. These steps are described in the notebook .

Vertex AI Machine Learning

Once we have encoded graph dynamics into vectors we can now use tabular methods in Google Cloud’s Vertex AI to train our machine learning models.

We first pull data from a storage bucket. Then we use this to create a Vertex AI dataset. Once the dataset is created, it’s possible to train a model using it. The notebook will display the results. You can also log in to the GCP console to view the results from the Vertex AI’s GUI.

Console views are great because they include ROC curves as well as the confusion matrix. These are useful in helping to understand how the model performs.

Vertex AI offers useful tools for the deployment of the trained model. You can load the dataset into a VertexAI Feature Store. An endpoint can then be deployed. This endpoint can then be called to compute new predictions. This can be found in the notebook .

Future Work

We quickly realized how much work could be done in this field while working on the notebook. Machine learning with graphs, especially when compared to studying methods for tabular data, is still a new field.

We would like to expand our knowledge in the following areas:

Improved dataset – It’s difficult to share publicly fraud datasets due to privacy concerns. This is why we used the PaySim dataset. This is a synthetic dataset. Our investigation revealed that the generated dataset has very little information. A real dataset will likely have more structure.

We’d love to continue exploring the graph of SEC-EDGAR Form 4 transactions in future research. These forms are used to show trades made by public company officers. We expect the graph to be quite interesting as many of these people are also officers in multiple companies. Workshops are planned for 2022, where participants can work together to explore the data using Vertex AI and Neo4j. You can already find a loader to pull this data into Google BigQuery .

Boosting and Embedding : Graph embeddings such as Fast Random Project duplicate data because sub graphs end-up in every tabular datapoint. XGBoost and other boosting techniques also duplicate data to improve results. Vertex AI uses XGBoost. This means that models in this example have likely too much data duplication. It is possible that we would see better results using other machine learning methods such as neural networks.

Graph Features This example shows how to automatically generate graph features by using embedding. You can also manually create new graph features. These two methods would likely result in richer features.

Types Of Cloud Computing Models | IaaS, PaaS and SaaS

Cloud Computing is changing the scenario of the online business. Many businesses and companies are adopting the environment of Cloud Computing. If you don’t want to step into cloud computing, it may affect your business and leave your business behind. Nowadays, the world’s top companies use Cloud Computing technology to grow, and you can’t ignore that fact. Don’t know much about Cloud Computing, don’t worry. At first, we will discuss cloud computing, and after that, we will discuss the types of Cloud Computing (that’s why you are here).

Cloud computing is a service that gives users data storage/cloud storage and system resources over the internet. The user gets safe and secure data storage and resources with cloud computing. The best thing about cloud computing is that you can access your data securely from any computer with internet access.

There are also many other benefits of Cloud Computing, such as:

  • Reduce IT costs
  • Affordable
  • Scalable
  • Business continuity
  • Collaboration
  • Flexibility
  • Automatic updates
  • Secure, etc.

Types of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing models

Now, we will talk about the types of Cloud Computing. There are three primary types of Cloud Computing:

  1. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)
  2. PaaS (Platform as a Service)
  3. SaaS (Software as a Service)

At first, we will compare all types of Cloud Computing. Later we will discuss each type separately.

  • IaaS offers storage, networking, and virtualization, for example, AWS EC2, Rackspace, Google Compute Engine, Digital Ocean, etc.
  • PaaS offers hardware and software tools over the internet, for example, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, Heroku, Azure, OpenShift, Apache Stratos, Magento Commerce Cloud, etc.
  • SaaS offers software via a third-party over the internet, for example, BigCommerce, Google Apps, Salesforce, Dropbox, ZenDesk, DocuSign, Slack, etc.

1/ IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)

At first, we will talk about IaaS. IaaS provides on-premise infrastructure, so it cut the expenses of investing in costly on-site resources. It also offers many services over the internet, such as pay-as-you-go storage, networking, virtualization, etc. IaaS is beneficial to all types of businesses, and it fits into most budgets. IaaS is a safer and more reliable option rather than investing in expensive physical hardware and IT infrastructure. With IaaS platform and support, you have the option of scaling up your requirements at any time.

Advantages of IaaS:

  • The on-site IT infrastructure maintenance is costlier as you have to invest in physical hardware. You will also need external IT contractors to maintain the hardware. IaaS helps to reduce the cost that you invest in IT infrastructure.
  • Buy what you need and purchase more as your business grows.
  • Highly flexible and scalable.
  • Control over the infrastructure
  • Quickly access and oversee IaaS platforms yourself.

Disadvantages of IaaS:

  • Security – IaaS cloud computing providers are not able to provide 100% security.
  • Maintenance & Upgrade –  They maintain the software, but they do not upgrade some organisations’ software.
  • Interoperability issues – It is difficult to migrate VM from one IaaS provider to the other, so users face vendor lock-in problems.

2/PaaS (Platform as a Service)

A PaaS offers tools (software and hardware) over the internet. Mostly, developers use PaaS, and they use these tools to develop applications. With PaaS, you don’t have to manage software updates or security patches. You only have to focus on the development, creating, and testing of the app.

Advantages of PaaS:

  • Easy to run
  • Build software or applications with the PaaS platform.
  • Create unique, customizable software.
  • Saves time and money on writing extensive code.
  • Accessible by multiple users. 
  • Scalable 
  • It is built on virtualization technology.
  • Cost and time-effective 

Disadvantages of PaaS:

  • Vendor lock-in – Issue in the migration of an app to another PaaS vendor.
  • Data Privacy
  • Integration with the systems apps – Some applications are local, and some are in the cloud. It creates complexity when we want to use data in the cloud with the local data.

3/ SaaS (Software as a Service)

SaaS platforms offer software over the internet for a monthly subscription fee. It hosts on a remote server by a third-party provider. SaaS is also scalable with different level of business for small, medium, and enterprise-level businesses. SaaS offers excellent security, compliance, and maintenance.

Advantages of SaaS:

  • No need to install and run software on your device.
  • Access the software from any device that has an internet connection
  • Easy to download the software onto multiple computers
  • Great payment structure.

Disadvantages of SaaS:

  • Security – Data is stored online so that security becomes an issue for some users.
  • Latency issue – Data is stored in the cloud at a variable distance, so latency also becomes an issue.
  • Dependency on Internet – SaaS applications are not accessible without an internet connection.
  • Switching between SaaS – Slow and challenging task of transferring the massive data files over the internet into another SaaS vendor.

Types of Cloud Deployment

When you discuss about differnet types of Cloud Computing then you should also know types of cloud deployment. There are mainly 3 types of cloud deployment, such as:

Public Cloud – For example, Amazon, Microsoft, or Google. 

They offer both services and infrastructure – shared by all customers. Public clouds have massive amounts of available space and are recommended for software development and collaborative projects. The advantage of a public cloud is the “pay as you go” structure. On the other hand, the infrastructure and operating system are under the cloud provider’s complete control.

Private Cloud

In the private cloud, only authorized users can access, utilize, and store data from anywhere. The difference between private and public clouds is that no one can access or utilize those computing resources in the private cloud. Private cloud offers security and control, but you have to pay for those features.

Hybrid Cloud

It is a combination of public clouds and private clouds, and allows the two platforms to interact seamlessly. The hybrid cloud provides a public cloud’s scalable computing power with a private cloud’s security and control.

Final Thoughts On Types Of Cloud Computing…

Cloud Computing is multiplying and shifting to the cloud will only boost your business. Hope you understand the different types of cloud computing. Now it depends on your needs which one is suitable for you. Let us know in the comment box which you will choose from IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, and why?

Best Cloud Storage Services in 2021 | Top 5

Are you looking for the best cloud storage services? Then you are in the right place. Here we a list of the Five best cloud storage services for you. At first, we will talk about what is Cloud Storage Services?. Cloud storage means storage that you can access remotely online either for free or for a fee. You can also call Cloud Storage Services as cloud backup services, online storage or backup, online drives, file hosting or storage, etc.

It is a secure virtual space that can be accessed through your browser, application, or mobile app. Your backup file’s actual location is usually in a data center somewhere, in a server, on a hard drive or solid-state drive. Scroll down and read the full article.

Best Cloud Storage Services In 2021

List of the Five Best Cloud Storage Services in 2021:-

  1. pCloud
  2. iDrive
  3. Google drive
  4. Mega
  5. Dropbox

1/pCloud

pCloud offers unique cloud storage options and plans. The platform uses block sync. It works fine on most devices, easy to set up and use. By default, pCloud keeps your files in the cloud. You can change the sync settings if you want a file to stay on your device for offline access. If your computer has multiple user accounts, other users will open the virtual drive if you don’t switch off pCloud. It is a simple step to secure your cloud storage. It’s easy to send or copy files to the pCloud folder and start syncing.

Its mobile app is also available. The mobile app has all the features of the desktop app. The mobile app also allows you to send shared links through other social media apps. 

Other features of pCloud are as following:

  • Social media backups, like Facebook, Instagram, and Picassa.
  • File versioning and rewinds (up to 30 days)
  • Upload photos, videos, and audio.
  • Document previews
  • Strong data protection
  • Also, backups WordPress site.

Subscriptions And Plans:

You get 10GB of free storage that can expand by referring to others. But the free plan does lack some features, like setting passwords on files.  pCloud offers different subscriptions and plans, such as: 

  • An annual subscription – 500GB of storage for $3.99/month and 2TB of storage for $7.99/month.
  • A lifetime subscription – 500GB of storage for $175 and 2TB of storage for $350.
  • Family plan – $500 allows for up to five users.
  • Business plan – $9/month per user, with a minimum of three users, each getting 1TB storage.

2/IDrive

IDrive is an online file storage business that offers robust plans with some of the most exciting features. IDrive has web client for Linux and desktop clients only for Windows and macOS. Bulk upload files are easy for desktop clients to compare with web clients.

The mobile apps are also available. You get all the main features and new features which make it more suitable for mobile users. You also get a full backup for mobile devices. IDrive also has advanced search tools for photos, such as a facial recognition system similar to Google Photos. Easy select files you want to back up or sync, tick the checkbox next to the folders you want to back up.

Other Features of IDrive as following:

  • More backup options.
  • Sync files between multiple devices,
  • Connect any number of devices.
  • Upload multiple files simultaneously
  • Saves 30 previous versions of your files
  • GDPR and HIPAA compliance

You can also opt for IDrive Express, and it will deliver a physical drive to your personal address. This solution lets you transfer massive amounts of data in just a few days.

The service is free for:

  • Private cloud storage – Once a year 
  • Businesses – Thrice a year

Security

IDrive encrypts via AES 256-bit encryption. IDrive gives you a private encryption key when you sign up. You won’t be able to decrypt your cloud storage file without it, and not even IDrive will be able to access your data. IDrive focuses more on security and data protection than collaboration features. Even third-party apps don’t get access to the platform. 

Plans

Six Business plans allow paying monthly, annually, or biannually. It also provides unlimited cloud storage. The plans start at $74.62/year for 250GB of storage. IDrive is more suitable for businesses with many employees. Only annual pay is available for a personal plan. IDrive has multiple plans for private users:

  • Lifetime 5GB Free.
  • Personal 2TB – Starts at $52.12/year, renews at $69.50/year.
  • Personal 5TB – Starts at $74.62/year, renews at $99.50/year.

3/Google Drive

Google’s cloud drive services are user-friendly. You likely have a Google Drive app installed if you have an Android phone. Google Drive has over a billion users and hosts two trillion files to date. Google Drive is open via a web client and desktop clients for Windows and macOS. It has a similar interface, such as other Google apps.

Google Drive makes it easy to get started with your cloud-based storage. You need to select which folders and files you want to keep backed up or synced between multiple devices. The search feature is also amazing, which saves time. Google Drive also scans images and PDFs for keywords.

Features

  • Retains deleted files
  • Files create with Google Docs, Slides, and Sheets don’t take up storage space. 
  • Back up smartphone photos (under 16 megapixels) without losing image quality.
  • You can preview images and videos. 
  • Invite users to view or edit files

However, you can’t run scheduled backups or do a full-system backup. Google Drive will encrypt the files you upload to protect them from attackers, so you do get secure cloud storage.

Plans

  • Get 15GB Free
  • 100GB for $1.99/month
  • 200GB for $2.99/month
  • 2TB – $9.99/month
  • 10TB – $99.99/month
  • 20TB – $199.99/month

4/Mega – Cloud Storage Service

MEGA is a popular storage provider. Its desktop client works on Windows, Linux, and Mac. If you use the browser client, you should get the MEGA browser extension. MEGA also has a mobile app and a web app.

Features of MEGA:

  • Easy To Use 
  • Video & Voice Conferencing
  • MEGA’s Redundant Server Infrastructure
  • Automated Sync
  • Public Source Code (71 GitHub Repositories)
  • Automatic Interaction using MEGAcmd, etc.

Plans

A business plan starts for $11.15/month per user. It offers you unlimited storage and bandwidth, as long as you have a registered business.

Four personal plans are available:

  • Pro-Lite – 200GB storage, 1TB bandwidth for $5.69/month
  • 1TB storage, 2TB bandwidth Pro I – for $11.38/month
  • 4TB storage, 8TB bandwidth Pro II – for $22.78/month
  • 8TB storage, 16TB bandwidth Pro III – for $22.78/month

5/Dropbox – Cloud Storage Service

Dropbox is one of the most popular Integration-Rich cloud storage services providers and the second-largest storage provider globally. Dropbox is supported by Windows, Linux, Mac, Android, and iOS devices. It also has a web client to access it from any browser. You only connect up to three devices with the free plan. You get 2GB of free storage and can expand by referring friends.

Features and offers of Dropbox:

  • Smart Sync On Unlimited devices
  • Mobile Offline Access
  • Link Sharing Features
  • Instant Live Chat Support
  • Document Scanning Option
  • 30 Day File and Version Recovery
  • 30 Day Trial For Business Accounts
  • GDPR Compliant

Plans

The two personal plans are:

  • Plus $9.99/month – 2TB storage
  • Professional $16.58/month – 3TB storage

The two business plans are:

  • Standard $12.50/month per user (min 3 users) – 5TB storage
  • Advanced $20/month per user – Unlimited storage

Other Best Cloud Storage Services:

  1. OneDrive
  2. Sync.com
  3. SpiderOak
  4. Icedrive
  5. Tresorit

Best Cloud Mining Sites | Everything You Should Know!

Are you interested in mining bitcoin without spending money on expensive equipment or setup? Also, you don’t want to mine Bitcoin yourself? Then the best solution for you is Cloud Mining. Now you have to find trusted and the best cloud mining sites. Scroll down and find out the best cloud mining sites. With cloud mining or cloud hashing, you let data centers mine Bitcoins for you by renting and paying for their equipment and paying so it can run smoothly.

Note: Cloud mining is a high-risk speculative investment; therefore, read everything related to cloud mining and cryptocurrencies before investing.

What is Cloud Mining?

Cloud Mining offers you to mine cryptocurrency without installing any hardware or high-end machines. Many companies help you to participate in cloud mining at a low service cost. Or you can say that Cloud Mining is a mining pool where you buy a certain amount of “Hash Power.” All the mining pool participants get an equal proportion of profit when distributed based on allocated hash power.

Pros of Cloud Mining or Cloud Hashing

  • No need for spending on expensive hardware and software installation.
  • No electricity costs and stress of upkeep.
  • Start or quit mining bitcoin at any time.
  • No more sound of fans running wild all day long.

Cons of Cloud Mining or Cloud Hashing

  • Many scams and lower profits in the long-term.
  • You cannot upgrade the gear yourself.
  • Cloud mining providers may shut down anytime.

Many people want to mine crypto but don’t have money to spend on expensive hardware. So, for those cloud mining contracts are the best option.

How to choose the best cloud mining provider?

There are so many cloud mining providers in the market, but choosing the best one is a big question because many companies are fraud and commit scams. Before choosing, you should check the following things:

  • Reputation and Reliability: Reputation of a cloud mining contract is essential. Always read reviews from different sources; otherwise, a fraud company may exploit the “bitcoin boom” and practically rip you off.
    For you, we make a list of reliable and best cloud mining providers.
  • Price: The price of operations is also essential. You can pick the machine you like to rent and how many. The minimum amount is almost $10-20 per month.

Best Cloud Mining Sites in 2021

List of the four best cloud mining sites in 2021:

  1. Eobot
  2. Hashflare
  3. Hashnest
  4. Hashing24

1/Eobot

The first provider in our list of best cloud mining sites is Eobot, which is also a crypto exchanger. It was launched back in 2013 in California, USA. Eobot gives innovative mining services with a wide range of tools. Once your sign up was complete, the website notifies you when anyone logs into your account from a new IP address. You also get Two-factor authentication by default.
Maintenance fees – $0.00021/GH/s/day.

Eobot also offers many features and services; such as:

  • Contracts are available for a wide range of cryptocurrencies.
  • You can buy deals with Bitcoin or via a USD credit card using Epay.
  • Available on both android and iOS.
  • Wide range of cryptocurrencies to let the user trade in between.
  • A calculator on the website to quickly calculate the earnings per cloud instance.
  • Receive mining updates every 60 seconds.

The Eobot has over 2.2 million users and thousands of active users daily. You also get the Eobot crypto Faucet feature of the website that randomly gifts a small amount of cryptocurrency daily to users. There are no monthly fees and the membership is free on the exchange. However, they charge a 5% fee on every transaction.

2/Hashflare

Hashflare offers a customizable pool mining solution since 2013. You also select which pools you want to mine. With transparent fees and commissions, you can always track how much you have made, including expenses. The best thing about Hashflare is that you don’t need a high amount of money for investments to start.

It also offers two types of mining like other cloud mining provider:

  1. Scrypt
  2. SHA-256.

Maintenance fees:

  • $0.0035 for every 10 GH/s of SHA-256 coins
  • $0.005 for every 1 MH/s of Scrypt coins a day

The users can mine five different cryptocurrencies via this platform:

  1. Ethereum (ETH)
  2. Litecoin (LTC)
  3. Bitcoin (BTC)
  4. ZCASH
  5. DASH

3/Hashnest

Bitmain launched Hashnest in 2014. It is a world-renowned manufacturer of ASIC mining hardware. Bitmain also owns Antpool, which is the largest mining pools in the present time.

HashNest rents out hardware for mining, currently offering a selection of Antminers and a StrongU miner. Hashnest has mining farms worldwide and offers excellent cloud mining contracts. PACMiC V5 – “Payback Accelerated Cloud Mining Contract”, it is a particular contract that aims to cut down the payback time-frame a lot.

Note: Hashnest will terminate your contract if your daily payout is lower than the maintenance fee for ten successive days. There is no cancel or refund policy.

4/Hashing24

Hashing24 provides legal cloud mining services since 2016 based in the United Kingdom, Thailand, and Ukraine.

Hashing24 provides unlimited contracts in comparison to other platforms. There are no fixed contracts. You can also select the hashing power and payment method. The only available cryptocurrency is Bitcoin, and the company pays its customers without any delay. It has partnered with big-name such as BitFury. Bitfury also mentions Hashing24 on their website. If you’re new to cloud mining, you can also use Hashing24’s demo mode. It will help you to understand how much you might earn.

Hashing24 fee – $0.00033 per GH/s per day.

Other Best Cloud Mining Providers in 2021

  1. Bitcoin Pool
  2. Minergate
  3. NiceHash
  4. Genesis Mining
  5. ECOS
  6. IQ Mining

Any Free Cloud Mining Trials?

If a company offers you free trials, then most certainly the company is trying to scam you. No one gives you free cash in return for nothing. So, stay away from those who offer free cloud hashing trials.

Final Thought

The primary purpose of this article is to tell you about the best cloud mining sites. There are so many cloud mining providers that create confusion. Also, there are a lot of scams in the Bitcoin cloud mining industry. This article will help you to choose a reliable cloud mining company to prevent you from scams. Also, run a virus scan weekly or monthly to ensure that you are not affected by a virus and stay safe from the risk of being hacked.

Thank you for reading the article ” Best Cloud Mining Sites | Everything You Should Know!.” If you want to know anything else related to Cloud Mining or have doubts, then ask in the comment section.

Cloud Reference Architecture : What are its benefits and how it works!

What’s Cloud Reference Architecture and what are its benefits? If you want to know all about this, then we are here to help. In this article, you will learn about cloud architecture and its functions…

Due to the leading era of businesses, we need more efficiency and agility to our work. Cloud computing provides all these to your businesses. Different cloud structures like public cloud, private cloud & hybrid cloud control our resources, smoothly access data, which is the need of any fast-growing business.

Now, coming to the Cloud reference architecture, it is the outline or a plan of any Cloud.  It gives a description of any cloud to make it more efficient and friendly for the vendors.

Let us briefly understand the cloud computing reference architecture and its aim.

What is Cloud Reference Architecture?

Cloud Reference Architecture

Cloud reference architecture is the description of how to make any cloud highly advanced, user-friendly, and more efficient so that it can easily solve any business problem. The main aim of the cloud reference architecture is to focus on operational complications in cloud computing. It is not about how to make a cloud, but it focuses on what cloud services provide.

Cloud reference architecture defines the relationship between the basic building blocks of a cloud, its components, and their elements which include its software, databases, capabilities, resources, etc. All this gives a reference to make a cloud structure highly liable. This also focuses on providing high bandwidth to the users so that they can easily access data, interchange resources from anywhere. It improves the relationship between the company and servers by providing them,on-demand agile network with the possibility to move quickly. It helps in making a cloud to work efficiently with highly secured features.

Components of Cloud Reference Architecture

The cloud reference architecture works on some key components to work on any cloud model which are:

  • Cloud resources
  • Software components
  • Database
  • Software services
  • On-premises resources
  • Middleware

 The functioning of Cloud reference Architecture

The cloud reference architecture is a general idea that works on cloud computing Environment by participating in functioning layers. This gives a three-cross layered function which includes business continuity, security, and service management. The business continuity gives the reliability and smooth functioning of any business with the highly secured cloud computing environment. These are the three main pillars of the cloud reference architecture. Due to the complexities in business nodules, it becomes hard to manage data or services. So the cloud reference architecture focuses on smooth service management and provides agility to the business with security factors so that you can safely store or access sensitive data.

Layers of the cloud computing model

The cloud computing model has four different layers of functioning. These layers only justify the functioning of the Cloud but are an important factor to know about, as they give an idea of the structural blueprint of any cloud.

  • Infrastructure

It is the physical layer of the cloud computing model which makes a framework. IAAS (infrastructure as a service) is a foundation layer that includes computing systems, storage devices, operating devices, tools, and also the operating environment.

This is the basic layer of the cloud reference Model which has hardware and network preferences.

  • Platform

PAAS (Platform as a service)is the virtual layer of the cloud reference model which provides tools for development and basically focuses on the resources, providing applications on the platform. The most basic examples of the platform are Google app engine & Microsoft Azure. The platform layer ensures the complete development and deployment environment for cloud computing.

  • Software

SAAS (Software as a service)forms the third and seems to be the main layer of cloud computing. It should be web-based so that the user can easily access it from any geographical region. It is the information cloud layer that enables access from clients to data. Excluding the network, resources, and tools it focuses on the functioning of applications, tools, and platforms in computing

  • Business processing outsource(BPO)

Generally, the fourth layer is not considered as a layer of cloud reference architecture but it includes the business management services. It is always a topic of debate, is it a layer of cloud model or not but it is an important governing part.

Cloud Implementation Models

The three cloud implementation models include public cloud, private cloud, and hybrid cloud.

The private cloud is used by any particular company or a user to access the data without sharing it with other employees and vendors. The public clouds run off-premises and run by any external vendor, it may include one or multiple data centers to access the information and all data accessing is external.

Hybrid cloud forms the linkage between the public and private cloud. It includes the third-party alliances i.e. at least one cloud must be accessed by any third party. It is a mix of on-premises, private & public cloud. The hybrid cloud is more efficient than other clouds as it reduces costs and even saves your time. It improves scalability and control over your data and provides liability which is the need of any fast-growing business. It makes it easy to manage multiple vendors and platforms at a time as it is a highly innovative cloud with a strong cloud reference architecture.

What makes a good reference architecture for cloud computing

A good cloud reference architecture must have a fine framework with a strong base. The infrastructure of the cloud must be chosen wisely, the resources and devices used on the primary layer should be liable. While choosing the network one must be careful. The platform must focus on reducing and solving business problems. The backbone must be strong. The good architecture shows a well functioning, proper base, and the model having elegance, simplicity, and efficiency is the main aim of the cloud reference Model. This improves the time to capability. Also reduces the IT costs related to public, private & hybrid cloud.

Also Read: Google Cloud Vs AWS : Which One Is The Best?

Hence, Cloud computing reference architecture seems to be the blueprint for any cloud to make it more efficient, liable, and easy to use. It is not about the design of any cloud but it focuses on the functioning of a cloud, its database, system management, data accessing, applications, and resources. It shows the relationship between these all.

5 Ways For Easy Immigration To Canada

Want to migrate to canada? Well will tell you what are the steps. Here you will learn about some simple ways for immigration to canada…

Immigration to Canada is one of the hardest in the world. It’s no surprise as it’s one of the best place to live and has a great image. There are many steps that you will need to take if you want to immigrate to Canada. The process can take months to years. If you’re educated about what to avoid and things to do, it will be easy for you to immigrate.

Canada has decided to accept 1 million new immigrants from 2020-2023. If you play your cards right you can be one of the chose million. Here are the best ways for migration to Canada.

5 Options for Smooth Immigration To Canada

Immigration To Canada

Express Entry Program

The Express Entry program is the best way of Immigration to Canada. This program only allows skilled people to immigrate and work in Canada. With this system the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) assess, recruits and selects skilled and knowledgeable immigrants under the federal economic immigration programs which includes:

  • The Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
  • The Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP)
  • Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP)

The Canadian Express Entry program is great for individuals and companies to recruit skilled employees outside the country. This will be done according to the Provincial Nominee Programs for getting skillful labours for the country. If you’re skillful then this program will be great for you.

LIMA Work Visa

Many people nowadays first get Canadian job offers, then apply for work visa and immigrate to Canada. It’s one of the common ways to get immigration to any country. The LMO Work Visas can be obtained after getting a Canadian job offer. After working in Canada for a few years you can apply for permanent residency. This is a very long process but you can become a Canadian permanent resident this way.

Family Class Sponsorship

Family Reunification is one of the most oldest and most used immigration programs. The families residing in Canada can easily sponsor their relatives to come there on a permanent basis. If you want to sponsor one of your relatives – you have to be a permanent resident or a Canadian citizen.

Now the question comes – Who can sponsor who? Only sponsoring a spouse or a child under the age of 22 (there are some exceptions) can be done. You can’t sponsor parents or grandparents at this moment. You can bring them with the help of Super Visa Category.

The other notable immigration programs are – Canadian Investor Immigration, The Provincial Nominee Programs (PNP), etc.

How much money do you need for Immigrating to Canada?

The amount of money you need for immigrating to Canada varies. There are some immigration programs that won’t require anything other than the processing fee. Whereas, other programs will require a good investment. It varies from category to category –

Business Immigration

If you’re doing a business immigration of any kind then you are required to make a significant investment in Canada. The applicant has to invest in a Canadian company. There’s another option of giving an interest free loan to the provincial or federal government.

Economic Immigration

Almost all the economical immigration categories ask you the proof that you can support yourself financially while settling in Canada. Only a few categories of this kind don’t ask you for the proofs. The categories that don’t ask for proofs want the applicant to have Canadian job offer or work experience.

Family-based Sponsorship

There are very rare cases in which you need to provide the financial info. about sponsering a dependent child or spouse. However, if you want to sponsor other family members be it a parent or grandparent then there’s a financial requirement that you will need to meet. Else it won’t be easy.

Refugee and Humanitarian Immigration

When applying under humanitarian and as a refugee you won’t need to meet financial requirements. However, if you’re a refugee and gonna apply as a privately sponsored one – the group or individual sponsering you must meet the sufficient requirements.

How Much Difficult is Immigration to Canada?

Moving to a new country is never easy, unless you’re a millionare (or billionaire). The Canadian immigration program like every other immigration program of any given country – has a requirement list. You just can’t go with hope that they will accept you to their country. Unless, you want to go as a refugee which will still be hard.

There are many immigration programs which require high knowledge – more qualification while others require more paperwork. You can get the help of an Canadian Immigration lawyer to make the process easier but that will still cost you some big Canadian dollars. Still, getting the help of a lawyer makes it all easier, you exchange your money with the ease of getting closer to Canada.

Do You Need A Job Offer For Immigration To Canada?

No, you don’t. Most of the current immigrated Canadian permanent residents ddidn’t had a job offer when they applied. Although, some of the immigration programs require you to have a Canadian Job offer, it isn’t necessary. There are other ways too.

What’s The Maximum Age For Immigrating To Canada?

There isn’t any specific age requirement set for the programs of Canadian immigration. However, people who age between 25 – 35 has bigger priority than some who is old. That doesn’t mean old people have less chances. If you good work experience, high proficiency in English language, advance education or Canadian connection it will be smooth no matter what how old you are.

Final Thoughts…

Ahoy folks, these were the best ways for migrating to Canada. Express Visa is, and will remain the best and fastest way to get Canadian citizenship. Canada is looking for immigrants and you can be one of them. It’s one of the best countries in the world. We all know how wholesome Canada is, this attracts people all around the world there.

So, do you like the ways of immigration to Canada? Why do you want to immigrate to Canada? What’s going on your country? Do you like your own country? If not, why? Let us know in the comments below…

Best SaaS Companies [Software as a Service] In 2020

Looking for the best SaaS companies [Software as a Service], then you are at the right place. There are hundreds of SaaS companies in the market. Choosing the best one among them is hard so, we make a shortlist for you.

If you are here, then you will surely know what a SaaS company and SaaS product but still to clarify. “SaaS companies contribute important digitalize business and value to customers by hosting applications on their servers over the internet also known as cloud-based service.” SaaS companies and products are becoming one of the most popular business platforms.

There are many SaaS companies in the market, and the best SaaS companies are easy-to-use accounting and invoicing. Also, they help brands manage expenses and vendors. SaaS solution also helps employees who are working in different offices to collaborate and make team projects easily.

Best SaaS Companies – Top SaaS Products

Here is the list of best SaaS Companies:-

  1. Salesforce
  2. Slack
  3. Shopify
  4. Adobe
  5. Dropbox
  6. Google

Top SaaS Companies

1 – Salesforce

The first best SaaS Companies on our list is Salesforce. Salesforce is a B2B type of public SaaS company. For almost two decades, Salesforce has been selling cloud-based customer relationship management software. The founder, chairman, and CEO of the company is Marc Benioff. Without a doubt, Salesforce is a champ of CRM. Headquarters of Salesforce – San Francisco, California, United States.

Salesforce is known for its CRM software. But it also provides Trailblazer online community, AppExchange, annual Dreamforce conference, social networking applications for purchase, and internal growth. The company’s main product is Sales Cloud, which helps sales manager handle their interactions with people till they become customers.

At present, Salesforce has three million+ subscribers. It has more than 40,000 employees around the globe. Salesforce has 58 cloud-computing products that ease employees to connect with their customers. It also holds the highest market share in all of CRM. The revenue made by Salesforce in 2017 was more than $8 billion.

2 – Slack – One of the Best SaaS Companies

Slack is a B2B type of private SaaS company. It is a user-friendly and excellent team collaboration platform. The CEO of the company is Stewart Butterfield, who is also co-founder of the photo-sharing website Flickr. Rank in-market presence – 85. Headquarters of Slack – San Francisco, California, United States. 

Slack is a chat and collaboration tool that allows:-

  • internal messaging,
  • file sharing,
  • video conferencing,
  • integrating with third-party services,
  • productivity bots.

Slack is one of the best SaaS solutions for its deeply customizable features and best user experience such as:-  

  • personalize avatars,
  • respond with emojis,
  • integrate team communication, etc.

You can also handle long conversations and share documents anytime and anywhere. You can also make particular channels, so your information is easily organized in one spot.

Note:- Salesforce is now going to buy Slack for two billion dollars.

3 – Shopify – One of the Best SaaS Companies

Shopify is a B2C type of public SaaS company. The founder and CEO of the company are Tobias Lutke. Rank in-market presence – 87. Headquarters of Slack – Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Shopify is one of the best e-commerce platforms for creating online stores that makes an online business a piece of cake. Just because of Shopify, it is now easier to start a business, find buyers, and sell them products.

You can easily maintain, design, and set up your stores over various sales channels. They also provide storefront, hosting, shopping cart for more than 600,000 online businesses and used in more than 175 countries. Shopify helps you make your enterprises reach more and more audiences to sell your products or services online quickly. Meanwhile, it makes money from processing transactions and subscription fees.

The platform also provides tools such as:-

  • store management,
  • marketing,
  • shopping carts,
  • SEO, etc.

4 – Adobe

Adobe is a B2B and B2C type of public SaaS company. The chairman, president, and CEO of the company is Shantanu Narayan. Rank in-market presence – 86. The headquarter of Adobe is in San Jose, California.

Adobe has 21,000+ employees around the globe. If you know about digital publishing, a graphic designer, or a creator, then you know the importance of Adobe software. The software from Adobe helps you to get your work done with ease. It also has more than 50 computer software products in marketing, digital media, publishing, printing, etc. About Eight billion+ transactions and 250 billion+ PDFs are proceeded and opened with Adobe’s help.

Adobe is a software company that also transform its business into a cloud-based business. Above all, top media companies, commercial banks, and auto manufacturers are using Adobe Marketing Cloud.

Adobe Creative Cloud is a set of cloud applications used for:-

  • graphic design,
  • video editing,
  • photography,
  • web design, and more. 

There are more than 2 million individuals and corporations spending subscription fees to use Adobe applications such as:-

  • Photoshop,
  • InDesign,
  • Illustrator,
  • After Effect,
  • Premiere,
  • Creative Cloud,
  • Acrobat Reader,
  • Flash Player and more. 

5 – Dropbox – One of the Best SaaS Companies

Dropbox is a B2B and B2C type of public SaaS company. The co-founder and CEO of the company – Drew Houston. Headquarter of dropbox – San Francisco, California. It has 500 million + registered users on its platform.

Dropbox is cloud-based storage for your documents and data. In other words, Dropbox is a cloud storage software where people can store and share their files and content. It allows users to stay organized and understand their business efficiently.

Dropbox is making business easy by creating and sharing content online. Easily share your files, project, documents, and content across teams and devices with dropbox help of dropbox without worry. Dropbox tools make your work done. The platform also gives users working on graphic design, content marketing, legal, finance, or project management. Improve your business with the help of dropbox by taking a free trial of this platform.

6 – Google

Google is a B2B and B2C type of public SaaS company. The CEO of the company is Sundar Pichai. Headquarter of google – Mountainview, California. Rank in-market presence – 92.

Explaining about Google is like wasted labor but still for you to understand better. Google is not only a search engine. The impact of google on the SaaS business is tremendous. Google has 137 products. Its search engine, Google Analytics, and G Suite are some of them.

G Suite is a collection of tools developed by Google such as:-

  • Drive that’s used for cloud storage
  • Gmail which is the top email service
  • Docs that’s handy for document creation
  • Calendar for managing your time and much more…

You only need a Google account and enjoy google services for free. However, Four million+ businesses are still spending on additional features that include unlimited cloud storage and 24/7 phone support. 

Conclusion…

SaaS makes your business stronger, powerful, and focused. SaaS tools are really helpful for you and for your business as well. Hope you find this article useful and helpful.

In this article, I told you the six best SaaS Companies. Now, you have to choose the best SaaS Company that fits you the best.

At last, if you have any questions related to SaaS companies and SaaS products, you can ask in the comment box. We will try to answer you ASAP…

Google Cloud Vs AWS : Which One Is The Best?

Google Cloud Vs AWS: Which one is more efficient?  Which one is better? These are some questions which many people seek the answer to. Today, we will compare and find the better one…

 

While we are discussing the Google Cloud and AWS, firstly we must know about cloud computing. Making it easy, we can say that Cloud computing is accessing & storing data over the internet instead of doing it in your personal hard drive.

Google cloud is a suite of cloud computing services offered by Google whereas AWS (Amazon web services) is a cloud platform offered by Amazon, made up of so many different cloud computing products & services.

 

Being a user of both Google Cloud and AWS (Amazon Web Services), we have got some key points which we are going to discuss in this article.

 

Google Cloud Vs AWS

 

Introduction to Google Cloud

 

Google Cloud is a suite of google’s public cloud computing resources and services.  It is a platform of cloud computing, offered by Google. It is the newest among other public cloud services, offered in 20 geographical regions. GCP enables us to control our resources with a granular hierarchy which includes permissions, access controls & billing limits.

 

 

Why Google Cloud?

 

  • As google cloud is a suite of cloud computing services offered by Google has future proof & a well-advanced infrastructure.
  • It has great and powerful analytics rather than other computing services.
  • Google Cloud services include cost efficiency due to its long term discounts.
  • It also provides an ease to its employees that they can work from anywhere.

 

 

What is AWS (Amazon Web Services)?

 

AWS is a secure, cloud service platform developed and managed by Amazon. Its cloud is the first, most robust, and has the broadcast feature set of big 3 providers. AWS is offered in 22 regions and each of its regions split into AWS availability zones. Amazon offers thousands of services with the flagship compute services and the AWS simple storage services at its core.

 

Why AWS ?

 

  • AWS is a subsidiary of Amazon providing on-demand cloud computing platforms.
  • It’s an ideal option when your project needs high computing power.
  • Amazon Web Services helps to improve the productivity of the application development team.
  • It is a cost-effective service that allows you to only pay for what you use, without any up front or long term commitments.

 

A fair comparison between Google Cloud & AWS

 

  • As of 2017, AWS owns a dominant 33% of all clouds, while Google Cloud has 9% according to synergy group. If we talk about AWS then, AWS provides APIs to individuals, companies & the government. It has an easy development pros/benefits process for an app. If your project needs high computing power then you can go for AWS, without thinking twice. It helps to improve the productivity of the application development team, also it is a cost-effective service that allows you to only pay for what you use. It’s a little higher end in terms of compute and storage costs. Also, you are allowed cloud access quickly with limitless capacity.

 

  • On the other hand, Google Cloud provides a serverless environment with powerful data analytics. It also has cost efficiency due to long term discounts. Employees can work from anywhere on the google cloud platform. It has a strong & future proof infrastructure and came under-functioning for 5 years.

 

  • Google cloud is a clear winner with its competitive pricing as compared to AWS .

AWS’s cost structure was pay per hour whereas GCP has a per-minute model in place, with a 10-minute minimum charge. GCP provides a better approach to long term usage. It came out as the cheapest provider for serverless computing.

 

  • AWS wins on market share and offerings, it also provides high computing power. It is a much better platform as it provides a global search, and provides data more significantly around the world.

 

Which is better, Google Cloud or AWS?

 

Knowing all the key points and using both the computing services we will find that both Google Cloud and AWS are highly rated. When it comes to choosing the better one there isn’t any clear winner.

Both the platforms come with their own pros and cons. AWS is perhaps the best choice for large enterprises that have specific requirements.

Google cloud beats AWS on greater flexibility, on-demand pricing, and services that are needed by most businessmen. It also has a very generous always-free tier. Whereas AWS scores better in terms of global reach and has more data centers around the world. AWS also support availability and greater redundancy.

 

 

 

 

6 Ways For Immigrating to the US Legally

Want to learn about immigration to the US. If yes, then we have got you covered. Here we will tell you everything you need to know about if you’re interested in immigrating to the US. There are only a handful of ways if you want to immigrate there. We have covered all of them. Let’s begin…

Thousands of people go to the US every year. America is known as the land of opportunities, you can start as a cleaner and still become a billionaire. That’s the unique selling point of US. Anyone can become anything! However, if you want to visit and move to the US you will need a green card or a valid visa.

Getting permanent residency is much harder. Here are some of the ways by which you will be able to obtain a permanent US visa. We have also listed some of the costs you will incur while getting the visa…

6 Ways For Legal Immigration To The US

Immigration to the US

 

Emplyment-Based Visas

It’s one of the most common and complicated ways to immigrate to the US. If you don’t have any Green card holders or relatives in the US then this will be your best bet. It will be easy if you have some extraordinary skills but if you don’t then it will be a pain in the specific region. You will need to find someone who will be ready to ‘sponsor’ and employ you. For that, you will still need to be highly educated.

With higher qualifications your chances of being hired by US companies also rise. Even if you won’t be able to get permanent residency for some time but you will get to earn money and live in the US. This way doesn’t guarantee a permanent residency in the US but it’s one of the ways which thousands of people use to go into the US every year.

Family-Based Immigration

The second way to immigrate to the US is Family-based immigration. What is simply means that if someone from your family is a permanent resident of the united states then it will be easy for you to move to the US. However, it depends – there are two kinds of family-based immigration requirements. It depends on the nature of the relationship you have with the family member residing in the US.

To get the right of living in the US a person must fulfill one of the following two requirements –

  1.  Should be a (Future) Spouse, should be an unmarried child under the age of 21, a parent of US green card holder or a US citizen. It’s the fastest way to get permanent residency.
  2. Be siblings and children over 21 years of age of US citizens. There’s a limit on the number of people who can get a Green card this way. They also have to face longer waiting times.

Student Visas

Student Visa is one of the top ways of immigrating to the US. You can study with a student visa, it’s possible after getting graduation in your home country then move to the US for master’s, find a job, and settle there. However, you need a lot of money if you want to study or live in the United States. It ain’t cheap, people sell all their assets just to move there.

There’s another choice of scholarship but for that, you need to be at the top of your academics. The top universities provide these scholarships and if you’re good enough then you won’t have to struggle much. But if you don’t get the scholarship then you will have to prove that you have enough money for traveling, studying, and living in the US.

Asylum Seekers

Many people show up at the US port if they are afraid to be prosecuted in their home country. The reason for prosucastion can be anything from –  religion, race, participation in a certain social group, nationality, or because of their political opinions. Approx 80,000 persons every year get into the US this way. There ain’t no limit on the number of people who can be granted asylum each year.

Any person who seeks protection from the outside countries due to the above reasons is called a refugee. The refugees are generally from countries where the living conditions are not optimal. People living in the US illegally can also seek Asylum. Only people from a few countries are allowed the status of a refugee.

Investors

Entrepreneurship is highly cherished in the US. It’s the world’s biggest economy right now. Most of the major companies in the world are located in the united states. It’s a great place to do business as people have more purchasing power and you get more skilled employees. You can also make money but there’s a catch – you need to invest varies between $90,000 and $1,800,000 (depending on the state).

All you need to do is – invest the capital, make sure it’s clean i.e, it doesn’t come from questionable sources and you should be able to apply for permanent residency. It won’t take enough time to get it and you will have a business from which you will be able to earn good amounts. This is great for self-employed individuals.

Visa Lottery

If none of the above options works for you then you can still bet it on your luck. Yes, getting lucky is also one of the ways that can allow you to get into the united states. It’s without a doubt, one of the most unique. The US Diversity Visa Program is a lottery that allows 50,000 immigration every year to people who live in countries that have low immigration numbers towards the US. You can be one of them!

How much money do you need for US immigration?

If you want to become a permanent citizen of the US it will be a long and costly process. According to sources, if you add all the various legal costs after coming to the US, it will be around $4,000 to $11,000. But most get it done under $8,000 of course it depends on how well you plan the journey. It can go even higher.

Various Forms and their fees:

Here are the various forms you need to fill for US immigration and their fees –

USCIS Form Filing Fees

Whenever you send an application form with USCIS, there are tons of fees involved. The fee depends on the residency you desire. The petition ranges from 225$ for non-migrant workers to 500$ for alien worker costs.

Petition Fees

Petition fees depend on applier to applier. Those who are asylum seekers don’t have to pay a petition fee but for all fees, they have to pay.

Attorney’s Fees

It isn’t a requirement – you don’t need to hire an attorney for immigration but it surely helps. The legal fees of attornies start from 3,000$ and go up to 10,000$.

Medical and Vaccination Costs

The applicants need to get through a medical checkup and get vaccines before getting immigration to the US. The costs and vaccination costs go up to 1,000$.

Naturalization Application

After becoming a permanent resident the next step is to get natural citizenship. For that, the fees is around 625$ to 720$ and other requirements.

Other Costs

After all this, there are many other costs that you’ll have to pay for like the citizenship test. Or, if you an illegal criminal record you’ll have to pay for legal help, etc.

Final Thoughts…

Ahoy folks, these were the best ways you can use if you want to immigrate to the US. There are many benefits of moving to the US but we think if your country is doing we you don’t need to move. Unless it’s obviously necessary you should try to make your own country better. But, in the end, it’s all up to you.

So, what are your thoughts about immigration to the US? Why do you want to move to the US? Which country are you from? Let us know in the comments below…